Famous Turkish Education System

Turkish Education System

The Turkish education system is divided into three levels as 12-year compulsory education. The first level is a four-year primary school (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades), the second level is a four-year secondary school (5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grade), and the third level is a four-year high school (9th, 10th, 11th). And 12th grade).

Primary Education

Primary education consists of four-year compulsory primary schools and four-year secondary schools that allow a choice between compulsory and different programs, and imam-hatip secondary schools. In secondary schools and imam-hatip secondary schools, elective courses are created to support high school education according to students’ abilities, development and preferences.

Secondary Education

It covers all general, vocational and technical education institutions based on primary education, providing four-year compulsory, formal or non-formal education. A secondary education diploma is given to those who complete these schools. Secondary education consists of high schools implementing various programs. Schools that focus on a certain program are given names that determine the branches of education such as high school, technical high school and agricultural vocational high school.

Secondary institutions providing education in Turkey in different categories are as follows:

General High School:

All students who have completed eight years of secondary education can go to these schools. High school graduates take the Basic Proficiency Test (TYT) to be placed in universities, and the Higher Education Institutions Exam (YKS), which consists of optional Field Proficiency Test (AYT) and Foreign Language Test (YDT) sessions.

Vocational High School:

Vocational high school graduates can attend vocational high schools without examination. Vocational high schools can be grouped as Technical, Communication, Health, Hotel and Tourism, Teacher, Maritime Vocational High Schools. These high schools may require an additional year of study.

Anatolian High School: These

Are the high schools where foreign language lessons are given predominantly and foreign language preparatory classes are studied in some Anatolian high schools. Lesson hours are longer than normal high schools; There are options for a second foreign language. Like Galatasaray High School, Kadıköy Anatolian High School, Istanbul High School (Istanbul Boys High School).

Science High School:

These are high schools for students with special interest and ability in Science. Students are trained in these schools to be placed in the Science fields of universities.

Imam – Hatip High School:

These are educational institutions that implement programs that are prepared for both profession and higher education within the secondary education system opened by the Ministry of National Education in order to train staff responsible for the fulfillment of religious services such as imam, hatip and Quran course teaching.

Fine Arts High School: These 

Are high schools that are opened to raise children who have special interests and skills in the fields of Fine Arts from an early age.

Private High School: These

Are high schools with foreign origin such as Robert College, Saint Joseph High School, and Austria High School, which are also known as colleges, where education is in foreign languages ​​in some courses such as Mathematics and Science, where the tuition fee is high and acceptance is difficult.

Vocational Scholl (Associate)

Those who have completed high school or equivalent schools are eligible to be candidates to enter higher education institutions. In order to enter the university, it requires students to obtain a certain score from the Higher Education Institutions Exam(YKS) administered by the Center for Assessment, Selection and Placement (ÖSYM) and the Higher Education Institution (YÖK). The scores of the students received from YKS and the total score obtained from the high school gpa are the determining factor in their placement in undergraduate programs.YKS consists of two sessions. One is divided into basic proficiency exam (TYT) and the other as the Field Proficiency Exam (AYT). After entering TYT, some universities sometimes take special talent exams. However, this requirement may vary depending on the university and faculty.

Higher education system in Turkey, universities, higher technology institutes, vocational schools and other educational institutes from (military and police academies) occurs.

Associate Degree

Vocational high school graduates can transfer to vocational high schools without examination. However, in order to switch from flat high schools to vocational high schools, a certain score is required in the Basic Proficiency Exam (TYT). The education period of vocational high schools is two years. Some vocational high schools have foreign language preparatory classes. Students who successfully complete their two-year education can take the Vertical Transfer Exam (DGS) and transfer to universities that offer four-year undergraduate education.


To obtain a bachelor’s degree, it is necessary to complete a four-year study period at a university. However, for professional branches such as Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Veterinary Medicine, a training period ranging from five to six years is required.


Master’s Degree

Students who complete a two-year master’s program with or without a thesis, on top of their undergraduate education, are awarded a master’s degree. Master’s programs with thesis usually require a minimum of 21 credits and a thesis to be written. Non-thesis master’s programs are programs that can be completed in 1.5 years and require at least 30 credits and a term project to be written.

Doctorate Degree

Those who have a bachelor’s or master’s degree can apply to doctoral programs. Doctorate programs must take at least 7 courses and 21 credits and pass the qualifying exam. Students who successfully pass their courses and proficiency exam write a thesis and defend them verbally before the thesis committee.

Medical Specialization The

Medical specialization is the equivalent of a doctorate degree obtained in medical schools, hospitals and research hospitals. Graduates of medical faculties take the Medical Specialization Examination (TUS) in different branches of medicine to become a specialist in Medicine. Expert candidates must submit a thesis and defend their thesis before the committee.

Proficiency in Art It is a degree equivalent to a doctorate, achieved by taking an exam in that branch of art after graduating from a faculty or college, creating a work of art

Mert Cansu tarafından yayımlandı


Famous Turkish Education System” için 5 yorum

  1. Mert, I found this well-organized and comprehensive summary of the Turkish education system very interesting. The overall structure and subject matter are very similar to here in the US, although I am certain there are many differences in the details. Are you a student? If so, what are you studying? 🙂 All the best! Cheryl


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